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Pentatonic Scales, Chord Scales, Diminished Scales

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III. Pentatonic Scales: A pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave.

~ Hemitonic Pentatonic Scales: (5 notes scales containing 1/2 steps)

~ Ahemitonic Pentatonic Scales: (5 notes scales not containing 1/2 steps)
- Major Pentatonic : Scale constructed by five consecutive pitches from the circle of fifths (see below).
- Minor Pentatonic : Scale constructed using the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 7th notes of a natural minor scale.

IV. Chord Scales: Basically composed by inserting the notes added on to the chords into the root major or minor chord in place some of the notes that are very close to these inserts. (see next chapter on chords for details)

V. Diminished / Octatonic Scales: Based on a series of alternating half steps and whole steps, so that any note can act as the root note
Pattern: 1-2-1-2-1-2-1-2 or 2-1-2-1-2-1-2-1

The Circle of 5ths:
In music theory, the circle of fifths (or circle of fourths) shows the relationships among the twelve tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys. More specifically, it is a geometrical representation of relationships among the 12 pitch classes of the chromatic scale in pitch class space.
For Details read this article: here (no point repeating)

circle of fifths

Musical Intervals and Scales:

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