Beams: Are used to join multiple flags. The 1st beam grouped note is equal to 2 eighth notes played separately. The second is a sequence - sixteenth, eighth, sixteenth, and eighth, notes. The rest place between is only there ornamentally.
Accent: When a note is written with a dot above or below (close to the rounded part and not above or below the stick – as shown), it indicates that the note is to be played, quickly muted and the remainder of the designated time to be taken as a rest. It’s a short burst of sound at the beginning of the length of time of the note chosen.
Dots (after the note): When present, they indicate that the note’s time has been prolonged by 50%. Thus in the example, the crotchet will be played for 1/4 + 50% of 1/4 of the time designated to it; i.e. 1/4 + 1/8 = 3/8 units.
Thus the semibreve, likewise, will be played for 1 + 50% of 1 = 1 +1/2 = 1.5 times the time that is allotted for it. When a second dot is added, the time is extended by 50% again, but of the dotted note – i.e. the semibreve with 2 dots = (semibreve with dot) + 50% of (semibreve with dot) = 1.5 + 50% of 1.5 = 1.5 + .75 = 2.25 units of time. Same applies for other notes. A 3rd dot is a rarity and will again increment the time in the same way.
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